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Tips for Writing

APA Style: Technical Tips for Essays

 Sample Reference Page

Chicago Style: Technical Tips for Essays

Sample Reference Page

MLA Style: Technical Tips for Essays

MLA Style:  Technical Tips for Literature Essays

                 MLA Style: Internet Citations           

MLA Style: Sample Works Cited Page

                 MLA Style: Annotated Works Cited Page-Types of Citations Highlighted

                 MLA Style: Annotated Works Cited Page-Elements Highlighted

Possessive Form

Punctuation

                 Apostrophes

                 Colons

                 Commas

                 Periods

                 Quotation Marks

                        Quotation Marks with Other Punctuation

                        Quoting within Quotations

                 Semicolons

Run-on Sentences and Comma Splices

                 Hints for Finding and Fixing Run-ons and Comma Splices

                 Sentence Fragments

                 How to Tell if the Sentence Is Complete

Spelling Confusion

                 Accept/Except

                 Affect/Effect

                 A lot/allot

                 Its/It’s

                 There/their/they’re

                 To/too/two

                 Who’s/whose

Style: Choosing Your Words with Care

                 Vocabulary

                 Sentence Structure and Sentence Combining

                 Style Pointers

                 Transitional Words and Phrases


APA Style: Technical Tips for Essays

This is a brief introduction to APA.  For more in-depth information, consult your handbook or an APA manual, or go to http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

1. The title of the essay and the page numbers should be at the top right-hand corner of every page, including the title page.  The title comes first on the title page.  Capitalize the first letters of all main words (excluding words like the, of, an, etc., unless they begin the title).  Do not use bold, italics, or underlining on your own title.  Your name comes next, followed by the course name, the teacher’s name, and the date (all centered). 

2. Double space the entire paper. Do not create extra spaces after your title, between paragraphs, or on the reference page. 

3. You must cite (give the source) for all quotations and paraphrases. Note that essays in APA rarely include quotations; paraphrasing and summarizing are used instead.  When quoting, use the exact words of the original source.  When paraphrasing, present the material from the source in your own words.  Be careful to avoid plagiarism; writers own their words as well as their information.  Citations can be given in a signal phrase or in parenthesesInclude page numbers only if the information given is specific. The page numbers that appear on material printed from the Internet have usually been added by the printer.  These numbers should not be used unless they appear in PDF format (photocopy of a print version) on the computer screen.

Signal phrase: According to Tuchman (1984), the United States government 

ignored intelligence that warned against military involvement in Viet Nam.

            Parenthetical citation: Ho Chi Minh made eight requests for aid from the United

States in 1945 (Tuchman 1984, p. 242).

4. Put short quotations (fewer than 40 words) in quotation marks.   Long quotations (40 or more words) are indented five spaces and double spaced (unless your teacher tells you to single space).  For long quotations, do not add quotation marks, and put parenthetical citations after the final period.  If there are new paragraphs within the quotation, indent them five more spaces.

5.  When citing online material, give information in the following order:

-the author/s (last name and first initial), or sponsoring organization

-title of document

-information about the source such as the title of the newspaper

-the words “Retrieved [insert date you accessed the information], from [insert

URL].

6. When citing material from a print journal that you accessed online, you do not have to include the URL or other information about how you accessed the journal.  After the title of the article, insert [Electronic version].


APA Style: Sample Reference Page

References

American Psychological Association.  (1984). Publication Manual of the American
   
	Psychological Association. (3rd ed.). Washington: APA.  

Be-Zvi, L. (1992).  'Murder She Wrote': the Genesis of Susan Glaspell's Trifles. Theatre 

	Journal 44, 141-62.

Joslyn, M. & Haider-Markel, P. (2002). Framing effects on personal opinion and 

	perception of  public opinion: the cases of physician-assisted suicide and social 

	security.  Social Science Quarterly 83, 690-707.

Media Giants. (2001). PBS Online. Retrieved 7 Mar. 2007, from http://www.pbs.org. 

Merritt, S. & Berger, B. (2004). Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hyponea Syndrome [Electronic 

	Version]. American Journal of Nursing 104, 49-52. 
 
Tuchman, B.  (1984). The March of Folly: From Troy to Vietnam.  New York:
 
	Ballantine.
  
U.S. Dept. of Justice.; Office of the Inspector General. (2002). Report to Congress on 

	implementation of section 1001 of the USA PATRIOT act (as required by Section 

	1001(3) of Public Law 107-56). Washington, D.C: U. S. Government Printing
 
	Office.

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